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Commercialization Accelerator Program


In biology, the smallest unit that can live on its own and that makes up all living organisms and the tissues of the body. 

Center Grants

Center grants are awarded to institutions on behalf of program directors and groups of collaborating investigators. They support long-term, multi-disciplinary programs of research and development.

cerebral hemisphere

One half of the cerebrum, the part of the brain that controls muscle functions and also controls speech, thought, emotions, reading, writing, and learning. The right hemisphere controls the muscles on the left side of the body, and the left hemisphere controls the muscles on the right side of the body.

cerebrovascular diseases

Cerebrovascular refers to blood flow in the brain. A disease in which an area of the brain is temporarily or permanently affected by inadequate blood supply or bleeding. Typically, one or more cerebral blood vessels are involved.


The Grants Management Officer within an awarding agency who is the principal Grants Officer in the agency.

Change in Scope

An activity whereby the objectives or specific aims identified in the approved grant application are significantly changed by the recipient after award. GMO prior approval is required for a change in scope to be allowable under an award. See NIH Grants Policy Statement: 8 Administrative Requirements 8.1 Changes in Project and Budget 8.1.2 Prior Approval Requirements Change of Scope for additional information.

Change of Recipient Organization

Transfer of the legal and administrative responsibility for a grant-supported project or activity from one legal entity to another before the completion date of the approved project period (competitive segment).

Chartered Advisory Committee

Any committee formed for advisory purposes composed not wholly of Federal officials. Under the Federal Advisory Committee Act, standing committees must be chartered, i.e., approved by their parent Agency in collaboration with the U.S. General Services Administration to ensure a properly balanced representation (geographical, women, minorities) and meet other legal requirements

Citation ID

The reference number used when citing papers falling under the NIH Public Access Policy on applications, proposals, or progress reports. The citation ID will be a PMCID or an alternative when the PMCID has not been assigned yet. See Citation Methods.

Clinical Research

Research with human subjects that is:

1) Patient-oriented research. Research conducted with human subjects (or on material of human origin such as tissues, specimens, and cognitive phenomena) for which an investigator (or colleague) directly interacts with human subjects. Excluded from this definition are in vitro studies that utilize human tissues that cannot be linked to a living individual. It includes: (a) mechanisms of human disease, (b), therapeutic interventions, (c) clinical trials, or (d) development of new technologies.

2) Epidemiological and behavioral studies.

3) Outcomes research and health services research

Studies falling under 45 CFR 46.101(b) (4) (Exemption 4) are not considered clinical research by this definition.

Clinical Trial

A research study in which one or more human subjects are prospectively assigned to one or more interventions (which may include placebo or other control) to evaluate the effects of those interventions on health-related biomedical or behavioral outcomes.

See Common Rule definition of research at 45 CFR 46.102(d)

See Common Rule definition of human subject at 45 CFR 46.102(f)

The term "prospectively assigned" refers to a pre-defined process (e.g., randomization) specified in an approved protocol that stipulates the assignment of research subjects (individually or in clusters) to one or more arms (e.g., intervention, placebo or other control) of the clinical trial.

An intervention is defined as a manipulation of the subject or subject's environment for the purpose of modifying one or more health-related processes and/or endpoints. Examples include, but are not limited, to: drugs/small molecules/compounds, biologics, devices; procedures (e.g., surgical techniques); delivery systems (e.g., telemedicine, face-to-face); strategies to change health-related behavior (e.g., diet, cognitive therapy, exercise, development of new habits); and, treatment, prevention, and diagnostic strategies.

A health-related biomedical or behavioral outcome is defined as the pre-specified effect of an intervention on the study subjects. Examples include positive or negative changes to physiological or biological parameters (e.g., improvement of lung capacity, gene expression); psychological or neurodevelopmental parameters (e.g., mood management intervention for smokers; reading comprehension and/or information retention); disease processes; health-related behavior; and, well-being or quality of life

Biomedical clinical trials of an experimental drug, treatment, device, or behavioral intervention may proceed through four phases:

Phase I. Tests a new biomedical intervention in a small group of people (e.g. 20-80) for the first time to determine efficacy and evaluate safety (e.g., determine a safe dosage range and identify side effects).

Phase II. Study the biomedical or behavioral intervention in a larger group of people (several hundred) to determine efficacy and further evaluate safety.

Phase III. Study to determine efficacy of the biomedical or behavioral intervention in large groups of people (from several hundred to several thousand) by comparing the intervention to other standard or experimental interventions as well as to monitor adverse effects, and to collect information that will allow the interventions to be used safely.

Phase IV. Studies conducted after the intervention has been marketed. These studies are designed to monitor the effectiveness of the approved intervention in the general population and to collect information about any adverse effects associated with widespread use.

Clinical Trial Research Experience

The involvement of a student, postdoctorate, or early career faculty member in a clinical trial led by their mentor or other investigator, with the goal of obtaining clinical trial experience relevant to their research interests and career goals. A clinical trial research experience is one in which the participant is supervised by a more experienced investigator and is intended to prepare the participant to potentially lead an independent clinical trial in the future. The applicant can be part of the clinical trial team and can use the data generated during the clinical trial research experience in his/her proposed research project. NIH expects the mentor to assume overall responsibility of the trial including registering and reporting in and obtaining IRB approval.

Close Date or Closing Date

The Close Date of a funding opportunity announcement is the date the funding agency lists in as the last submission due date for the announcement.

Cluster of Programs

A grouping of closely related programs that share common compliance requirements. The types of clusters of programs are research and development (R&D), student financial aid (SFA), and other clusters. "Other clusters" are as defined by OMB in the compliance supplement or as designated by a state for Federal awards the state provides to its sub-recipients that meet the definition of a cluster of programs. When designating an "other cluster," a state must identify the Federal awards included in the cluster and advise the sub-recipients of compliance requirements applicable to the cluster, consistent with 45 CFR § 75.352(a). A cluster of programs must be considered as one program for determining major programs, as described in 45 CFR § 75.518, and, with the exception of R&D as described in 45 CFR § 75.501(c), whether a program-specific audit may be elected.


Funding arrangement through which two or more Institutes or Centers share in the funding of a grant.


An individual involved with the PD/PI in the scientific development or execution of a project. The Co-Investigator (collaborator) may be employed by, or be affiliated with, the applicant/recipient organization or another organization participating in the project under a consortium agreement. A Co-Investigator typically devotes a specified percentage of time to the project and is considered senior/key personnel. The designation of a Co-Investigator, if applicable, does not affect the PD/PI's roles and responsibilities as specified in the NIH Grants Policy Statement, nor is it a role implying multiple PD/PI.


The Council on Financial Assistance Reform (COFAR) is an interagency group of representatives from the eight largest grant-making agencies established to create a more streamlined and accountable structure to coordinate financial assistance.


The Council on Financial Assistance Reform (COFAR) is an interagency group of representatives from the eight largest grant-making agencies established to create a more streamlined and accountable structure to coordinate financial assistance.

Cognizant Agency

The Federal agency which, on behalf of all Federal agencies, is responsible for: reviewing, negotiating, and approving cost allocation plans, indirect cost rate and similar rates; monitoring non-Federal audit reports; conducting Federal audits as necessary; and resolving cross-cutting audit findings. The cognizant agency under the applicable cost principles and under OMB Circular A-133 may be different for a given recipient.

Cognizant Agency for Audit

The Federal agency designated to carry out the responsibilities described in 45 CFR § 75.513(a). The cognizant agency for audit is not necessarily the same as the cognizant agency for indirect costs. A list of cognizant agencies for audit may be found at the FAC Web site.

Cognizant Agency for Indirect Costs

The Federal agency responsible for reviewing, negotiating, and approving cost allocation plans or indirect cost proposals developed under this part on behalf of all Federal agencies. The cognizant agency for indirect cost is not necessarily the same as the cognizant agency for audit. For assignments of cognizant agencies see the following: (1) For IHEs: 45 CFR Pt 75, Appendix III, C.11. (2) For nonprofit organizations: 45 CFR Pt 75, Appendix IV, C.2. (3) For state and local governments: 45 CFR Pt 75, Appendix V, F.1. (4) For Indian tribes: 45 CFR Pt 75, Appendix VII, D.1.

Commercial Organization

An organization, institution, corporation, or other legal entity, including, but not limited to, partnerships, sole proprietorships, and limited liability companies, that is organized or operated for the profit or benefit of its shareholders or other owners. The term includes small and large businesses and is used interchangeably with "for-profit organization."

Commitment Base

Funds used for non-competing (type 5 or ongoing awards), typically 70-80 percent of the dollars spent for research project grants.

Common Fund

The NIH Common Fund supports cross-cutting, trans-NIH programs, including those referred to as NIH Roadmap programs. See The NIH Common Fund.

Companion FOAs

A set of FOAs that share a unified theme or initiative. These FOAs may use different activity codes. They are typically (but not always) published concurrently.

Competing Applications

New or renewal applications that must undergo initial peer review.

Competing Continuation

Competing Research Project Grant

An application for a Research Project Grant requiring peer review, as opposed to a non-competing continuation.

Competitive Range

A contracting term denoting a group of proposals considered acceptable by the initial peer review group which are potential candidates for an award.

Competitive Revision

A request for (or the award of) additional funds during a current project period to support new or additional activities which are not identified in the current award that reflect an expansion of the scope of the grant-approved activities. Competitive revisions require peer review.

Competitive Segment

The initial project period recommended for support (in general, up to 5 years) or each extension of a project period resulting from a renewal award.

Compliance Supplement

Appendix XI to 45 CFR 75 (previously known as the Circular A-133 Compliance Supplement).

Component Type

A 'component type' is a named, agency-defined collection of forms that may be repeated within a multi-project grant application.

For example, a specific multi-project application includes one Administrative Core, two Core and three Project components. In this example, the application includes 6 components using three different component types (Administrative Core, Core, Project).

'Overall' is a special component type, used by the applicant organization, with a single occurrence in every multi-project grant application. The Overall component typically contains information about the application as a whole and how the various other components fit together.

Computing Devices

Machines used to acquire, store, analyze, process, and publish data and other information electronically, including accessories (or "peripherals'') for printing, transmitting and receiving, or storing electronic information. See also "supplies" and "information technology systems."

Conference Grant

A grant whose purpose is to support activities related to the conduct of a conference(s) or defined set of conference-related activities.

Conflict of Interest

Conflict of Interest is a cross-cutting issue that affects many policy areas such as peer review, financial conflict of interest, and responsible conduct of research. There are different uses of this term throughout this document. It generally means that a competing personal interest could affect, or could appear to affect, an individual's judgment or could cause the individual's impartiality to be questioned. Conflicts of Interest (actual or potential) may arise in the objective review process or in other activities or phases of the financial assistance process. See also Financial Conflict of Interest for a specific definition covering that policy area.

Congressional District

A territorial division of a state from which a member of the United States House of Representatives is elected.

Consortium Agreement

A formalized agreement whereby a research project is carried out by the recipient and one or more other organizations that are separate legal entities. Under the agreement, the recipient must perform a substantive role in the conduct of the planned research and not merely serve as a conduit of funds to another party or parties. These agreements typically involve a specific level of effort from the consortium organization's PD/PI and a categorical breakdown of costs, such as personnel, supplies, and other allowable expenses, including F&A costs. The relationship between the recipient and the collaborating organizations is considered a subaward relationship. (See the NIH Grants Policy Statement: 15 Consortium Agreements).

Constant Dollars

Dollar amounts adjusted for inflation, based on buying power in a selected base year. The BRDPI is used to determine constant dollars from current dollars.

Contact PD/PI

When multiple PD/PIs are designated, NIH requires that the applicant organization identify one of the PD/PIs as the Contact PD/PI to serve as a primary point of contact. Serving as Contact PD/PI confers no special authorities or responsibilities within the project team. The Contact PD/PI must meet all eligibility requirements for PD/PI status. However, as with the single PD/PI model, if the Contact PD/PI is not an employee, the applicant organization must have a formal written agreement with the Contact PD/PI that specifies an official relationship between the parties. (See NIH Grants Policy Statement: 9 Multiple Program director/Principal Investigator Applications and Awards)

Continuous Submission

As a way of recognizing their service to NIH, reviewers with substantial review service are permitted to submit their research grant applications (R01, R21, or R34) on a continuous basis and to have those applications undergo initial peer review in a timely manner. Read more about Continuous Submission.

Contract Transaction Types

Type 1 New contract
Type 2 Renewal
Type 3 Modification
Type 4 Letter contract
Type 5 Continuation of an incrementally (typically, in one year increments) funded contract
Type 6 Task orders and subsequent modifications relating to existing ordering agreements
Type 7 Exercise of option
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Form Approved OMB# 0925-0648 Exp. Date 05/31/2021