Glossary

Filter By:
A B C D E F G H I K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X

cell

In biology, the smallest unit that can live on its own and that makes up all living organisms and the tissues of the body. 

C

cell

In biology, the smallest unit that can live on its own and that makes up all living organisms and the tissues of the body. 

E

Existing dataset

An existing dataset may be constructed of different types of data including but not limited to survey data, demographic information, health information, genomic information, etc. Also included would be data to be derived from existing samples of cells, tissues, or other types of materials that may have been previously collected for a different purpose or research question but will now be used to answer a new research question. In general, these will be studies meeting the NIH definition for clinical research with a prospective plan to analyze existing data and/or derive data from an existing resource and where no ongoing or future contact with participants is anticipated.

H

hormones

One of many substances made by glands in the body. Hormones circulate in the bloodstream and control the actions of certain cells or organs. Some hormones can also be made in the laboratory.

M

metabolic diseases

Diseases or disorders that disrupt normal metabolism, or the process of converting food into energy on a basic cellular level.

N

nerve fibers

A bundle of fibers that receives and sends messages between the body and the brain. The messages are sent by chemical and electrical changes in the cells that make up the nerves.

nucleus

In biology, the structure in a cell that contains the chromosomes.

R

receptors

A molecule inside or on the surface of a cell that binds to a specific substance and causes a specific effect in the cell.

S

sacs

A vesicle or pouch within or outside a cell that typically contains fluid. Synaptic vesicles are sacs that carry chemicals called neurotransmitters from the end of an axon (presynaptic cell) to a neighboring cell (postsynaptic cell).

secrete

To form and release a substance. In the body, cells secrete substances, such as sweat that cools the body or hormones that act in other parts of the body.

T

tissue

A group or layer of cells that work together to perform a specific function.

tumors

An abnormal mass of tissue that results when cells divide more than they should or do not die when they should. Tumors may be benign (not cancer), or malignant (cancer).
Was this page helpful?
Form Approved OMB# 0925-0648 Exp. Date 05/31/2021